College papers help

The establishment of the kingdom of saudi arabia in 1932

Vast oil revenues gave an immense impetus to the spread of this austere variety of Islamic theology around the world. Saudi Arabia is bounded by seven countries and three bodies of water. Bahrain is an island off the east coast.

The kingdom occupies about 80 percent of the Arabian Peninsula. A significant length of the country's southern borders with the United Arab EmiratesOmanand Yemen are not precisely defined or marked, so the exact size of the country remains unknown.

The Saudi government's estimate is 829,996 square miles 2,149,690 square kilometers. The kingdom is commonly listed as the world's 14th largest nation, or slightly more than one-fifth the size of the United States. Saudi Arabia's geography is varied. The southwestern 'Asir region has mountains as high as 9840 feet 3000 meters and is known for having the greenest and freshest climate that attracts many Saudis to resorts such as Abha in the summer months.

The east is primarily rocky or sandy lowland continuing to the shores of the Persian Gulf. The geographically hostile Rub' al Khali "Empty Quarter" desert along the country's imprecisely defined southern borders contains almost no life.

  1. Saudi Arabia does not have much of a formal criminal code, and thus much of its law is derived from its ultra-conservative Wahhabism. King Fahd suffered a stroke in November 1995, and died in July 2005.
  2. Some archaeologists argue that another group of Semites left Arabia about 2500 B.
  3. The nation of Saudi Arabia evolved from tribal origins, with financial assistance from merchants, knowledge imparted by imams and teachers, and bureaucratic work done by jurists and bureaucrats.

The highest point is claimed to be Jabal Sawda at 10,278 feet 3133 metersbut this elevation is disputed by space shuttle radar data, which also questions the high-point location. Mostly uninhabited, much of the nation's landmass consists of desert and semi-arid regions, with a dwindling traditional Bedouin population. Desert vegetation is limited to weeds, xerophytic herbs and shrubs.

Less than two percent of the kingdom is arable land. Saudi Arabia has no permanent year-round rivers or lakes. Its coastline extends for 1640 miles 2640km and, on the Red Sea side, offers world-class coral reefs, including those in the Gulf of Aqaba.

  1. Muslims view Muhammad not as the creator of a new religion, but as the restorer of the original, uncorrupted monotheistic faith of Adam, Abraham , Moses and Jesus.
  2. Originally, the Arabs of the Arabian Peninsula relied heavily on a diet of dates, wheat, barley, rice and meat, with little variety, with a heavy emphasis on yogurt products, such as leben yogurt without butterfat.
  3. Mostly uninhabited, much of the nation's landmass consists of desert and semi-arid regions, with a dwindling traditional Bedouin population. By 2012 about 80 percent of Saudis lived in urban metropolitan areas—specifically Riyadh, Jeddah, or Dammam.
  4. These bombings caused the monarchy to focus on militancy inside the kingdom, yet they denied there was much of a problem. As late as 1970, most Saudis lived a subsistence life in the rural provinces, but in the last half of the 20th century the kingdom has urbanized rapidly.

Native animals include the ibex, wildcats, baboons, wolves, and hyenas in the mountainous highlands. Small birds are found in the oases. The coastal area on the Red Sea with its coral reefs has a rich marine life. Extreme heat and aridity are characteristic of most of Saudi Arabia. Night-time temperatures in the mid desert can be famously chilly even in summer, as sand gives up daytime heat rapidly once the sun has set.

Annual precipitation is usually sparse up to four inches or 100mm or in most regions between January and May, although sudden downpours can lead to violent flash floods in wadis.

Plants can still survive in Saudi Arabia, mostly in the south-east mountains and lowlands. They bloom mid-March through mid-May. The plants provide food for birds and insects. Rainfall is adequate for the nomadic herding of sheepgoatsand camelsbut crop production depends on irrigation from underground aquifers.

Natural hazards include frequent sand and dust storms. Environmental issues include coastal pollution from oil spills, desertification, and the depletion of underground water resources. The lack of perennial rivers or permanent water bodies has prompted the development of extensive seawater desalination plants. In some extended areas, primarily the Rub' al-Khali and the Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrub lands, there is no population whatsoever, although the petroleum industry is constructing a few planned communities there.

Riyadh is the capital; Jeddah, is the second largest city, is the main Red Sea port, and is a pilgrimage gateway to Mecca ; Dammam is the eastern province capital, and third largest metropolitan area; Mecca is the holiest city in Islam; Medina is the second holiest city; and Ta'if is a mountain resort above Mecca.

History People of various cultures have lived in the peninsula over a span of more than 5000 years. The Dilmun culture, along the Persian Gulf coast c.

Except for a few cities and oasis, the harsh climate prevented much settlement on the Arabian Peninsula. The earliest known events in Arabian history are migrations from the peninsula into neighboring areas.

1932: How was the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Established?

Some archaeologists argue that another group of Semites left Arabia about 2500 B. Mixing with the local populations there, some of these migrants became the Amorites and Canaanites. Some archaeologists argue that the migration, instead, came from the northern Levant. Significant between 3000 the establishment of the kingdom of saudi arabia in 1932 2500 B. The camel saddle was invented between about 500 and 100 B.

Islam Did you know? This occurred first in and around Mecca and then in Medina beginning in 622 C. By the time Muhammad died in Medina in 632 C. Muslims view Muhammad not as the creator of a new religion, but as the restorer of the original, uncorrupted monotheistic faith of Adam, AbrahamMoses and Jesus. Islam's first caliph Abu Bakr completed the process of conversion. Arabian converts carried the religion throughout the Middle East and north Africa.

The rise of Islam and the subsequent religious importance of the Arabian cities of Mecca and Medina two of the holiest places in Islamhave given the rulers of this territory significant influence beyond the peninsula. After studying in the Hijaz and IraqSheikh Muhammad Al Abd al-Wahab who died in 1792returned to Najd and preached and wrote against practices that deviated from Islam.

He urged his followers, who became known as muwahidun "unitarians"to end polytheistic practices and adhere strictly to the Koran and the Hadith the sayings and doings of the Prophet. A new leadership structure placed Al Saud in the position of umara princes, rulers and Al Abd al-Wahab also known as Al Sheikh in the position of ulama learned in religion.

The movement involved military struggle, preaching, the establishment of Koranic schools, the setting up of new communities, and the creation of a bureaucratic state that ruled in Najd. The House of Saud, with other allies, rose to become the dominant state in Arabia controlling most of the Nejd, but not either coast. This Saudi state lasted for about 75 years. Rulers of the first Saudi state were: Ali sent his sons Tusun Pasha and Ibrahim Pasha who were successful in routing the Saudi forces in 1818.

The state lasted until 1891 when it succumbed to the Al Rashid dynasty of Ha'il. On January 29, 1927, he took the title King of Nejd his previous Nejdi title was sultan. In 1932, these regions were unified as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Oil discovered The discovery of oil on March 3, 1938, transformed the country. Development programs, which were delayed due to the onset of the Second World War in 1939, began in earnest in 1946 and by 1949 production was in full swing.

Oil has provided Saudi Arabia with economic prosperity and a great deal of leverage in the international community. Boundaries with JordanIraqand Kuwait were established by a series of treaties negotiated in the 1920s, with two neutral zones created, one with Iraq and the other with Kuwait. Internationally Abdul Aziz initially chose to follow an isolationist policy.

He refused to allow Saudi Arabia to join the League of Nationsand he chose to leave his kingdom on only three occasions from 1916 until his death in 1953. Eventually however Abdul Aziz acceded to the realities of world politics and in 1945 Saudi Arabia became a founding member of the Arab League and joined the United Nations.

Aware of the difficulties facing other regional absolute rulers reliant on extended family networks, Abdul Aziz took steps to provide that his eldest living son, Saud, would become king, but that he would be required to work closely with his more financially and diplomatically astute brother, Faisal.

Saud and Faisal Saud ascended to the throne on his father's death in 1953, and reigned for 11 years. But by the early 1960s, the kingdom was in jeopardy due to Saud's economic mismanagement and his failure to deal with a regional challenge from Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser. Because of fiscal difficulties, King Saud had been persuaded in 1958 to delegate direct conduct of Saudi Government affairs to his half-brother Faisal as prime minister.

In October 1962, Faisal outlined a broad reform program, stressing economic development. In 1964 Saud was forced to abdicate in favor of Faisal, who continued to serve as prime minister.

The Formation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Subsequent kings followed this practice. Neighboring wars The mid-1960s saw external pressures generated by Saudi-Egyptian differences over Yemen. Tensions subsided only after 1967, when Egypt withdrew its troops from Yemen.

In 1965, there was an exchange of territories between Saudi Arabia and Jordan in which Jordan gave up a relatively large area of inland desert in return for a small piece of sea-shore near Aqaba. Saudi forces did not participate in the Six-Day Arab-Israeli War of June 1967, but the government later provided annual subsidies to EgyptJordanand Syria to support their economies. After the 1973 war, the price of oil rose substantially, dramatically increasing Saudi Arabia's wealth and political influence.

King Fahd period In 1975, King Faisal was assassinated by a nephew, and was succeeded by his half-brother Khalid as king and prime minister.

Their half-brother, Prince Fahd, was named crown prince and first deputy prime minister. King Khalid empowered Crown Prince Fahd to oversee many aspects of the government's affairs. Economic development continued rapidly under King Khalid, and the kingdom assumed a more influential role in regional politics and international economic and financial matters. In June 1982, King Khalid died, and Fahd became king and prime minister in a smooth transition. Another half-brother, Prince Abdullah, Commander of the Saudi National Guard, was named crown prince and first deputy prime minister.

King Fahd's brother, Prince Sultan, the minister of defense and aviation, became second deputy prime minister. Under King Fahd, the Saudi economy adjusted to sharply lower oil revenues resulting from declining global oil prices.

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia supported neutral shipping in the Gulf during periods of the Iran-Iraq war and aided Iraq's war-strained economy. King Fahd played a key role in bringing about the August 1988 cease-fire between Iraq and Iran and in organizing and strengthening the Gulf Cooperation Council. In August 1990, Saddam Hussein 's forces invaded Kuwait. Iraqi troops began massing on the border of Kuwait and some feared that they were about to invade Saudi Arabia.

King Fahd allowed American and coalition soldiers to be stationed in Saudi Arabia to counter the Iraqi threat. Many Muslims were angered by this move, because it allowed foreign armies to be stationed in their holiest land.

Saudi Arabia accepted the Kuwaiti royal family and 400,000 refugees while allowing Western and Arab troops to deploy on its soil for the liberation of Kuwait the following year. King Fahd's action also consolidated the coalition of forces against Iraq and helped define the tone of the operation as a multilateral effort to re-establish the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Kuwait.

Acting as a rallying point and personal spokesman for the coalition, King Fahd helped bring together his nation's Gulf Cooperation Council allies, Western allies, and Arab allies, as well as non-aligned nations from Africa and the emerging democracies of eastern Europe.

He used his influence as custodian of the two holy mosques to persuade other Arab and Islamic nations to join the coalition. These attacks were repelled, and Iraqi forces were expelled from Kuwait. American forces as well as some multinational contingents continued to occupy bases in the kingdom.

Terrorism Building 131 after the Khobar Towers bombing, the second major terrorist attack against Western troops in Saudi Arabia, 1996 The stationing of Western troops on Saudi territory angered many Muslimsand led radicals to declare a religious war against the United States.