College papers help

Research a global organization and a cultural issues that affects this organizations interactions ou

How and Why Does Organizational Culture Change?

I trust the decisions made by leaders - I am able to voice my work-related opinions to immediate supervisor 96 I have the opportunity to voice my work-related opinions to senior defence managers 30 I receive adequate feedback on my work 75 I take part in the decision-making processes that affect my work 84 Organizational change process involved consultative process at all levels 17 I was comfortable in expressing my views about organizational change 81 Table 1.

Quantitative findings on trust and open communication Information Sharing Schein 1993 and Phillips 1997 have studied the impact of information sharing on the development of common identity commonality.

They suggest that information sharing promotes common identity, mutual trust, and organizational learning, and is directly related to organizational cultures that foster generative learning.

Schein 1993 also claims that opening up and sharing encourages integration between organizational subcultures and in turn, organizational adaptation to change. Our findings strongly suggest that in addition to an information sharing culture, the development of common identity is achieved also through induction research a global organization and a cultural issues that affects this organizations interactions ou enculturation progresses.

The following comment well summarises the sentiments of many people we interviewed: If the individuals take extra effort to do a good handover, that will occur. Organizationally, there's very little in place to make it happen. If effective, they not only promote development of common identity but also facilitate social learning by providing a foundation upon which the individual can become fully productive more quickly, and thus is more likely to generate new knowledge.

It follows, therefore, that negative perceptions of induction held by members of the joint service strategic HQ could hinder social learning. In this setting, therefore, social learning would be facilitated via the promotion of common identity as well as by the transfer of information and organizational knowledge.

Forgiveness in Culture The ESLA team observed that settings characterised by a culture of forgiveness and a climate where exploration, mistakes and taking some risk were allowable were those where collaborative generation of new ideas was more prevalent. Davenport and Prusak 1998 claim that lack of forgiveness for mistake making is one of the basic stumbling blocks because it slows or prevents or even erodes some of the knowledge as it moves through the organization sharing of information.

Organizations have a responsibility to create a culture in which learning occurs, and that culture will determine the quality of learning that takes place. A culture that minimises the fear of making mistakes and exercises praise and rewards, not only for those who succeed but also for those who tried hard and might not have achieved the desired results, is important in the learning organization.

Similarly, Ellinger 1999 points out that open communication and the encouragement of questions are effective vehicles for driving organizational learning. This culture of forgiveness and learning from mistakes was widely prevalent in the tactical environment where mistakes were freely admitted and discussed. This process became a vehicle from which the whole group benefited.

The ESLA team observed that this positive communication climate was supported by a high level of trust between group members and across hierarchy. Research by Oldham, 1996 indicates that when supervisors are highly supportive of their subordinates e.

In the joint strategic environment, on the other hand, the climate of forgiveness and the application of lessons learned were not so prevalent. It was also observed, in the case of some individuals, that having information and knowledge was perceived as having power: Withholding of information may hinder or even prevent individuals from developing a knowledge foundation from which new knowledge can be generated.

Information technology and learning Information technology plays an important role in enabling organizations to use information and knowledge to their strategic advantage. The data pointed to information technology being used as a vehicle for better utilising personal networks complementing rather than replacing person-to-person contact. For instance, in the single service headquarters, personal networks and then meetings were ranked as the most preferred non-technology information sources.

These results suggest that even when employees are using technology, they are doing so to enhance communication within their personal networks. This apparent contradiction is clarified by data from semi-structured interviews where the vast majority of people, across all three settings, stated that they found human sources the most effective, and usually the most efficient, means to obtain work-related information.

A possible explanation for this preference may be that information from technology-based sources might be stripped out of its context and rendered less meaningful. Through interpersonal interactions individuals are able to probe and question and obtain not only the desired information but also the richness of contextual meaning. The study results point to the technology being used to facilitate interpersonal networks within which interaction occurs.

The preferences are not due to ineffective records management because there has been no codification into a written form. Conclusions The implication of this study is that organizations seeking to improve information sharing and knowledge generation need to develop a greater awareness of the processes and strategies of organizational learning. Organizational knowledge is distributed across functional groups and its generation and continual existence is dependant on the overall communication climate which is embedded in the organizational culture.

  1. Organizational hierarchy Organizational hierarchy and attitudes towards management roles can also vary widely between cultures.
  2. Management Communication Quarterly, 14, 237-270. Leaders can create, and also be created or influenced by, many different workplace cultures.
  3. Everyone has this respect and curiosity for all the cultural and personal differences between us.
  4. Organizational hierarchy Organizational hierarchy and attitudes towards management roles can also vary widely between cultures. Organizations may, therefore, become more agile by allowing subcultures to emerge.
  5. This study indicates that information sharing and subsequent knowledge generation would be successful when interactive environments are cultivated before technology based solutions are implemented.

This study indicates that information sharing and subsequent knowledge generation would be successful when interactive environments are cultivated before technology based solutions are implemented.

When the results of the most recent study, the single service HQ, have been analysed a research report on the full study will be published. Acknowledgements The authors wish to acknowledge the vital contribution made to this work by Dr Jennie Clothier whose vision made it possible.

Thanks also are due to all the Defence personnel who participated in the studies and gave freely of their time. On organizations of the future. Climate formation, issues and extensions. Academy of management review, 10, 837-847. A contextual integration of individual and organisational learning perspectives as part of IS analysis. Management Communication Quarterly, 14, 237-270. Cultural analysis in IS planning and management.

Journal of Systems Management, 47, 14-17.

Developing management skills in Australia. Harvard Business Review, 72, 119-131. Sloan Management Review 34 153-65.

What is Organizational Culture?

How organisations manage what they know. Harvard Business School Press.

The Quest for the dependent variable. Information Systems Research, 3, 60-95. Managerial coaching behaviour in learning organizations.

Journal of Management Development, 18 9752-771. The Basis of social power. Ethnographic workplace studies and computer supported cooperative work. Presented at the Interdisciplinary Workshop on Informatics and Psychology. Academy of Management Journal, 39 3607-635. A Stakeholder theory and principle of fairness. Business Ethics Journal, 7 151-66. The effect of organisational climate on managerial job performance and job satisfaction.

Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 9, 126-146. The relationship of communication, ethical work climate, and trust to commitment and innovation.

Journal of Business Ethics, 25, 313-328. On Dialogue, culture, and organizational learning. Organizational Dynamics, 22 240-51. The concept of organizational climate.

Explorations of a concept pp.

The survey of organiztions: A machine-scored standardized questionnaire instrument. Institute for Social Research. Organisational learning through the collection of "lessons learned". Informing Science, 3 3127-133.