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A history of the pakistani civil war

I, published by the planning commission of Pakistan Between 1948 and 1960, East Pakistan's export earnings had been 70 percent while it only received 25 percent of import earning. In 1948 shortly after independence from the UKEast Pakistan had 11 textile mills while West had 9. In 1971, the number of textile mills in the West had grown to 150 while that in the East had only a history of the pakistani civil war up to 26. A transfer of 2. Moreover it was felt that much of the income generated by the east was primarily diverted towards fighting wars in Kashmir.

Difference in religious standpoints One of the key issue was the extent to which Islam was followed. West Pakistan with an overwhelming 97 percent Muslim population was less liberal in religious terms than East Pakistan which was at least 15 percent non-Muslim mainly Hindus. Bengalis' are proud of their common literary and cultural heritage in which Muslim, Hindu and Christian writers are held in high esteem across the religious divide. The difference was made further clear after Bangladeshi independence, when Bangladesh was established as a secular country under the name "People's Republic of Bangladesh" rather than as the Islamic Republic of Bangladesh.

This was in tribute to all those, Muslim and non-Muslim, who had taken part in the independence struggle. Other factors including language Close ties existed between East Pakistan and West Bengal, one of the Indian states bordering Bangladesh, as both were composed mostly of Bengalis.

West Pakistan viewed East Pakistani links with India unfavorably as relations between India and Pakistan had been very poor since independence. In 1948, Mohammad Ali Jinnah declared in Dhaka, capital of East Pakistan, that "Urdu, and only Urdu," a language that was only spoken in the West by Muhajirs and in the East by Biharis, would be the sole official language for all of Pakistan, while Bangla was spoken by the majority of people.

  • Her account endows "Tahrir Square" with an entirely different meaning;
  • This caused a rise in tensions across the border as India realized the gravity of the situation.

East Pakistan revolted and several students and civilians lost their lives on February 21, 1952. Bitter feelings among East Pakistanis never ceased to grow, especially with repeated arrivals of military rulers.

Impact of the cyclone The already tense situation was further aggravated by a tropical cyclone that struck East Pakistan in 1970. It was a particularly devastating year as the deadliest cyclone on record—the Bhola cyclone—struck Bangladesh claiming nearly half a million lives. The apathy of West Pakistan leadership and its failure in responding quickly was a further platform for the Awami League, that capitalized on this tragedy. The Pakistan Army failed to do relief work of any significance to alleviate the problem, which further antagonized the already estranged Bengali populace.

Political climax The political prelude to the war included several factors. Due to the differences between the two states, a nascent separatist movement developed in East Pakistan. Any such movements were sharply limited, especially when martial law was in force between 1958 and 1962 under General Ayub Khan and between 1969 and 1972 a history of the pakistani civil war General Yahya Khan. These military rulers were of West Pakistani origin and continued to favor West Pakistan in terms of economic advantages.

The situation reached a climax when in 1970 the Awami League, the largest East Pakistani political party, led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahmanwon a landslide victory in the national elections winning 167 of the 169 seats allotted for East Pakistan, and a majority of the 313 total seats in the National Assembly. This gave the Awami League the right to form a government.

Instead, he proposed a notion of two Prime Ministers. On March 3, 1971, the two leaders of the two wings along with the President General Yahya Khan met in Dhaka to decide the fate of the country. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman called for a nation-wide strike. East-Pakistani judges, including Justice Siddique, refused to swear him in. MV Swat, a ship of the Pakistani Navy, carrying ammunition and soldiers, was harbored in Chittagong Port and the Bengali workers and sailors at the port refused to unload the ship.

A unit of East Pakistan Rifles refused to obey commands to fire on Bengali demonstrators, beginning a mutiny of Bengali soldiers. Between March 10 and 13, Pakistan International Airlines canceled all their international routes to urgently fly "Government Passengers" to Dhaka. These so-called "Government Passengers" were almost exclusively Pakistani soldiers in civil uniform.

  • Niazi surrendered to the combined forces headed by its commander Lt;
  • The Pakistani Army tried to force Indian troops away from East Pakistan by attacking in the western sectors;
  • In Bangladesh, and elsewhere, the Pakistani actions are referred to as genocide;
  • Indira Gandhi then ordered the immediate mobilization of troops and launched the full scale invasion;
  • The West Pakistani rulers identified the Bengali culture with Hindu and Indian culture, and thought that the eradication of Hindus would remove such influences from the majority Muslims in East Pakistan;
  • The fledgling Bangladesh Navy comprising officers and sailors who defected from Pakistan Navy aided the Indians in the marine warfare, carrying out attacks, most notably Operation Jackpot.

In this speech he mentioned a further four-point condition to consider the National Assembly Meeting on March 25: The immediate lifting of martial law. Immediate withdrawal of all military personnel to their barracks. An inquiry into the loss of life. Immediate transfer of power to the elected representative of the people before the assembly meeting March 25.

  1. The Indian Army, far superior in numbers and equipment to that of Pakistan, executed a three-pronged pincer movement on Dhaka launched from the Indian states of West Bengal, Assam, and Tripura.
  2. Pakistan controlled part of the area, Azad Free Kashmir, while India held most of the territory, which it annexed in 1957. The work includes in its name from the word Virangana Heroine , given by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman after the war, to the raped and tortured women during the war.
  3. This group had been instrumental in the 1952 uprising called the Language movement, which ended in Pakistan accepting Bangla as one of its national languages.

He urged "his people" to turn every house into a fort of resistance. He closed his speech saying, "The struggle this time is for our freedom. The struggle this time is for our independence. In Bangladesh, and elsewhere, the Pakistani actions are referred to as genocide. Before carrying out these acts, all foreign journalists were systematically deported from Bangladesh.

Bengali members of military services were disarmed. The operation was called Operation Searchlight by Pakistani Army and was carefully devised by several top-ranked army generals to "crush" Bengalis.

Although the violence focused on the provincial capital, Dhakathe process of ethnic elimination was also carried out all around Bangladesh. Residential halls of University of Dhaka were particularly targeted. The only Hindu residential hall—the Jagannath Hall—was destroyed by the Pakistani armed forces, and an estimated 600 to 700 of its residents were murdered.

The Pakistani army denies any cold blooded killings at the university, though the Hamood-ur-Rehman commission in Pakistan states that overwhelming force was used at the university. This fact and the massacre at Jagannath Hall and nearby student dormitories of Dhaka University are corroborated by a videotape secretly filmed by Prof.

Nur Ullah of the East Pakistan Engineering University, whose residence was directly opposite to the student dormitories. Hindu areas all over Bangladesh suffered particularly heavy blows. By midnight, Dhaka was literally burning, especially the Hindu dominated eastern part of the city.

Myth-busting the Bangladesh war of 1971

Time magazine reported on August 2, 1971, "The Hindus, who account for three-fourths of the refugees and a majority of the dead, have borne the brunt of the Muslim military hatred. Awami League was banned by General Yahya Khan.

Some other Awami League leaders were arrested as well, while few escaped Dhaka to avoid arrest. Declaration of independence On March 26, the nation waged an armed struggle against the Pakistani occupation forces following the killings of the night of 25 March.

The Pakistani forces arrested Sheikh Mujib, who, through a wireless message, had called upon the people to resist the occupation forces [source: The Daily Star, March 26 2005].

Mujib was arrested on the night of March 25-26, 1971 at about 1: Map of Bangladesh On March 26, 1971, M. Hannan, an Awami League leader from Chittagong, is said to have made the first announcement of the declaration of independence over radio, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman signed an official declaration on March 25, 1971 that read: Today Bangladesh is a sovereign and independent country.

Many innocent and unarmed have been killed in Dhaka city and other places of Bangladesh. Violent clashes between EPR and Police on the one hand and the armed forces of Pakistan on the other, are going on.

The Bengalis are fighting the enemy with great courage for an independent Bangladesh.

Bangladesh War of Independence

May God aid us a history of the pakistani civil war our fight for freedom. They realized the message could be broadcast from Agrabad Station of Radio Pakistan.

The message was translated to Bangla by Dr Manjula Anwar. They failed to secure permission from higher authorities to broadcast the message. Bengali soldiers guarded the station as engineers prepared for transmission. This is Shadhin Bangla Betar Kendro. At his direction, I have taken command as the temporary Head of the Republic. We shall fight to the last to free our Motherland. By the grace of Allah, victory is ours.

The message was picked up by a Japanese ship in Bay of Bengal and then re-transmitted by Radio Australia and later the British Broadcasting Corporation. March 26, 1971 is hence considered the official Independence Day and according to all Bangladeshi sources, the name Bangladesh was in effect henceforth. Certain sources, especially of Indian and Pakistani origin, continued to use the name "East Pakistan" until the following December 16.

The main war As political events gathered momentum, the stage was set for a clash between the Pakistan Army and the insurgents. Though smaller Maoist style paramilitary bands started emerging, the Mukti Bahini freedom fighters emerged increasingly visible.

Headed by Colonel Muhammad Ataul Gani Osmani, a retired Pakistan Army officer, this band was raised as Mujib's action arm and security force before assuming the character of a conventional guerrilla force. After the declaration of Independence, the Pakistan military sought to quell them, but increasing numbers of Bengali soldiers defected to the underground "Bangladesh army. They then jointly launched operations against the Pakistan Army killing many in the process.

This setback prompted the Pakistan Army to induct Razakars, a paramilitary force, from the local populace to bolster their numbers. These people were essentially viewed as traitors and with suspicion by local Bengalis, as a vast majority of these recruits were Bihari Muslims who had settled during the time of partition. This helped Pakistan stem the tide somewhat as the monsoon approached in the months of June and July.

Undeterred by this setback, Mukti Bahini regrouped as they gained in strength and capability. Aided by the Indian government in West Bengal, they were equipped and trained to counter the Pakistan Army. As there was no action during the monsoon, it was seen by the Pakistan military brass as a weakening of the Bangladesh cause.

However it was merely the lull before the storm. After sensing the enormity of the issue, the army was beefed up as the troop strength was increased to more than 80,000. This caused a rise a history of the pakistani civil war tensions across the border as India realized the gravity of the situation. The Indian military were preparing for the eventual onslaught with the aid of the separatists and waited for the end of the monsoon season to enable easy passage. The Indians aimed to bypass the villages and towns and instead concentrate on the cities and the highways which ultimately would lead to the capture of Dhaka.

Pakistan decided to nullify such an attack and on December 3 and launched a series of preemptive air strikes. However the plan failed to achieve the desired success and was seen as an open act of unprovoked aggression by the Indians. Indira Gandhi then ordered the immediate mobilization of troops and launched the full scale invasion. This marked the official start of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 with fighting commencing in West Pakistan.

The Indian Army, far superior in numbers and equipment to that of Pakistan, executed a three-pronged pincer movement on Dhaka launched from the Indian states of West Bengal, Assam, and Tripura.