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The influence of society on success of an athlete

Does the Media Impact Athletic Performance? The credit belongs to the man who is actually in the arena, whose face is marred by dust and sweat and blood, who strives valiantly, who errs and comes up short again and again because there is no effort without error and shortcomings, who knows the great devotion, who spends himself in a worthy cause, who at best knows in the end the high achievement of triumph and who at worst, if he fails while daring greatly, knows his place shall never be with those timid and cold souls who know neither victory or defeat.

A point of consensus clearly stated in these sources is that athletic performance efficiency is reduced by distraction.

Does the Media Impact Athletic Performance?

Distractions evoke negative mood responses, detrimental arousal and anxiety levels, and stress, thus resulting in the consumption of mental energy. By concentrating effectively, an athlete can conserve physical energy by maintaining good technique and focus, executing skills properly, and pushing the body through pain and fatigue barriers. Time spent fretting over distractions drains mental energy so that performance suffers Manktelow, 2006.

As Haverstraw 2002 noted, distractions may arise from various sources including: The purpose of this paper is to initiate an examination of the influence of the media as a distraction and its impact on athletic performance. For the purposes of this paper it is important to have a common definition and understanding of media, arousal, stress, anxiety, and mood.

In this context, media can be newspaper reporters, paparazzi, television newscasters, or fans and critics who publicize their critiques of athletic performance through the influence of society on success of an athlete use of public forums and blogs. In order to differentiate between arousal, anxiety, and stress in this text, specific definitions will be used.

Arousal will refer to a state of alertness as the body prepares itself for action. It is associated with increases in physiological and psychological activity, such as heart rate and attention Landers, 1980. Stress is defined as a state that results from the demands that are placed on the individual which require that person to engage in some coping behavior Jones, 1990.

Anxiety results when one doubts his or her ability to cope with the situation that causes him or her stress Hardy et al. Additionally, for this text, mood is defined as a group of persistent feelings associated with evaluative and cognitive states which influence all the future evaluations, feelings, and actions Amado-Boccara et al.

Now that there is a common understanding of these terms, it is important to understand their relationship to athletic performance.

  • She also became the first female skater to successfully complete a quadruple jump in competition;
  • To deflect negative press questions he began dressing up in costumes, and had fun with the press.

Arousal and Anxiety In the field of Sport Psychology, many models have been created to explore arousal and anxiety levels as they relate to athletic performance. Following criticisms of lack of support, popular unidimensional models such as the Inverted U-Theory and the Catastrophe Theory are being replaced with multidimensional-type models Weinberg, 1990.

The Multidimensional Anxiety Theory by Martens et al. It takes into consideration two different elements: Cognitive anxiety signifies distractions which involve inability to concentrate, disruptions in attention, and negative performance expectations Martens et al. Additionally, the somatic anxiety element signifies perceived physiological arousal such as elevated heart rate and increased perspiration Martens et al.

In general, The Multidimensional Anxiety Theory hypothesizes that as cognitive anxiety increases, athletic performance decreases. Also, it concludes that an inverted-U relationship explains the correlation between somatic anxiety and athletic performance. This inverted-U relationship illustrates that as somatic anxiety increases from low to moderate levels, there is an associated improvement in performance.

Arousal and Stress In sport competition, athletes must often think fast and make sharp decisions regarding the task at hand. For example, when a basketball player is receiving a pass from a teammate, he or she must complete necessary cognitive functions quickly in order to catch the pass. According to a model created by A. If the basketball player exhibits a low level of arousal, his or her perception declines. When the arousal level is too high, though, perception becomes less efficient. Moreover, high levels of stress accompany increased anxiety Sanders, 1983.

Mood Sport psychologists, coaches, and others are eager to learn how to tailor athletes to perform at the highest level possible. In their attempts to accomplish this, mood in relationship to performance is being studied. Lane and Terry 2000 created a conceptual model of mood and performance. In this model, the authors focus on the influence of society on success of an athlete during pre-competition and its effects on subsequent performance. It is suggested that pre-competitive mood influences athletic behavior.

  • Because there have been no empirical examinations on the influence of the media on athletic performance, the following will provide examples of some famous athletes who have been subjected to intense media scrutiny, provide their reaction to the media attention, and present the impact, if any, the media had on their athletic performance;
  • There are many techniques an athlete can use to overcome the media hurdles;
  • This inverted-U relationship illustrates that as somatic anxiety increases from low to moderate levels, there is an associated improvement in performance.

Depressed mood, specifically, acts as a catalyst for reduced vigor, the influence of society on success of an athlete anger, confusion, fatigue, and tension, thereby debilitating performance Mellalieu, 2003. These depressive symptoms involve negative cognitive views individuals have of themselves in relation to their past, present, and future social experiences.

To examine influences on elite athlete performance, Greenleaf et al. Although positive factors existed, the Olympians cited many negative factors influencing performance. One such factor noted was media distractions. It was found that factors, such as media distraction, are psychological in nature, thus, demonstrating the importance that mental factors play in elite sport performance Greenleaf et al.

The theoretical and empirical data regarding arousal, anxiety, stress, and mood will be used to explore the influence media may have on athletic performance. In order to apply this information, it is necessary to first provide the following individual examples where media may have impacted athletic performance. Win or lose, their performance and life is publicly dissected by the media. Losing brings forth negative judgment and more criticism.

Mediocre people play it safe and avoid criticism at all costs. Champions risk criticism every time they perform. Miki Ando was a two-time Japanese national figure skating champion and 2004 Junior World champion. She also became the first female skater to successfully complete a quadruple jump in competition. Ando is very popular in Japan and receives a lot of attention from gossip magazines and other Japanese media.

They also frowned on her for wearing mini skirts. The JSF was so concerned media coverage would negatively affect Ando as she prepared for the Olympics, they sent formal written requests to several magazine publishers asking them to cut back on their coverage NBC, 2006.

The JSF was not the only organization concerned with media impact on their 2006 Olympic athletes. The Canadian Olympic Committee 2006 recognized the potential of the media as a distraction to their athletes as well. In an effort to divert any negative media influence, the Committee publicly announced the following communications objective in their victory management plan: A media training section emphasizing the notion to support athletic performance by removing media as a distraction Canadian Olympic Committee, 2006.

Were these concerns founded? Some in the Republic of China believe so. After China won the first gold medal in the 2004 Olympic Games and had some major unexpected wins during the first few days of Olympic competition, Chinese newspaper and television stations touted predictions of gold medals their athletes would claim.

The predictions, however, did not come to fruition. Athletes the media advertised would take first, such as the Chinese male gymnasts, did not even make it to the award stand. On August 19, 2004, China Daily blamed the losses on exaggerated hypes of gold made by the media.

The editorial claimed the hype caused the athletes to become overconfident and resulted in athletic incompetence.

Dual role models?

Chinese diver Peng Bo agreed. At the 2006 Torino Olympics, Ando did not quite meet the gold medal goal coveted by all Olympian athletes. She placed eighth in the Ladies figure skating short program and 15th in the freestyle competition. Because there have been no empirical examinations on the influence of the media on athletic performance, the following will provide examples of some famous athletes who have been subjected to intense media scrutiny, provide their reaction to the media attention, and present the impact, if any, the media had on their athletic performance.

During the 2005 season, Rogers refused to talk to media after they published a report saying he would retire if the Rangers did not give him a contract extension.

  1. The theoretical and empirical data regarding arousal, anxiety, stress, and mood will be used to explore the influence media may have on athletic performance. Not only does the media write and talk about them due to them not fitting the stereotypical construct of the usual tennis player, Venus and Serena are also known and criticized for the exotic, colorful, and tight fitting attire they wear on the court.
  2. This indicates a possible causal relationship between stress and the media influence on Rogers.
  3. Anxiety results when one doubts his or her ability to cope with the situation that causes him or her stress Hardy et al. Many hire sports psychologists or counselors.
  4. In their attempts to accomplish this, mood in relationship to performance is being studied. Research into the specific mechanisms of how the media influences athletic performance is warranted.
  5. It takes into consideration two different elements.

Then on June 29, 2005, while walking onto the field for a pre-game warm-up, he had an altercation with two cameramen. Rogers first shoved Fox Sports Net Southwest photographer David Mammeli, yelling at him to get the cameras out of his face. Next, Rogers charged cameraman Larry Rodriguez, wrestled the camera from him, threw it to the ground, and kicked it.

As a result the influence of society on success of an athlete the tirade, Rodgers was suspended and fined. Before all of his run-ins with the media, Rogers was having a career best season.

However, following the suspension, in his August 11, 2005 return to the mound, Rogers allowed five runs and seven hits in five innings, on the way to a 16 to 5 loss. He also gave up a two-run homer in the all star game where he was booed by the crowd.

This indicates a possible causal relationship between stress and the media influence on Rogers. His adversarial relationship with the press caused him to publicly lose his temper and become violent, which cost him playing time, salary, and the respect of the fans. According to Swerdlick 2005Ricky Williams suffered with a debilitating social anxiety disorder and extreme shyness.

The aggressive media attention was uncomfortable and frightening for him. In his early pro years he dreaded doing interviews so much he wore his helmet and an eye shade inside his face mask. The article claims that in order to cope with all the unwanted media attention Williams smoked marijuana.

As a result, he failed three NFL drug tests and experienced further embarrassing press. Swerlick asserts that the media negatively impacted this athlete. Ricky Williams walked out on the Miami Dolphins; lost millions of dollars; lost the respect of his teammates and fans; and still finds himself as media fodder Swerdlick, 2005. Many disagree with this conclusion, however, as is indicated on numerous blogs.

  1. In his early pro years he dreaded doing interviews so much he wore his helmet and an eye shade inside his face mask.
  2. Like Dorsett, some athletes are able to strive under intense media scrutiny by using it as motivation to achieve success. Instead of being commended for overcoming disadvantage, Venus and Serena are criticized and negatively portrayed by media.
  3. He also gave up a two-run homer in the all star game where he was booed by the crowd.
  4. For the purposes of this paper it is important to have a common definition and understanding of media, arousal, stress, anxiety, and mood.
  5. Ricky Williams walked out on the Miami Dolphins; lost millions of dollars; lost the respect of his teammates and fans; and still finds himself as media fodder Swerdlick, 2005.

His personal turmoil, however, such as being convicted of raping Miss Black America and his volatile escapades such as biting off the ear of opponent, Evander Holyfield, made him one of the most media criticized boxers of all times. Up until the early 1990s, Tyson, to many boxing enthusiasts, seemed unbeatable.

  • Tyson may have exhibited depressive symptoms which include negative cognitive views individuals take of themselves in relation to their past, present, and future social experiences;
  • If Tyson possessed depressive mood, the effects of increased anger, heightened fatigue, increased confusion, and reduced vigor immensely hindered his performance;
  • Up until the early 1990s, Tyson, to many boxing enthusiasts, seemed unbeatable;
  • Also, during performance, Tyson experienced somatic anxiety levels above a moderate range, thus decreasing his performance.

He earned numerous championship titles such as: However, as his personal life became mired in legal difficulties, the media had an increased negative focus when reporting about him, and concurrently, Tyson lost all of his previously earned professional boxing titles. His sudden decline in performance may be tied to negative and excessive media attention, effecting his training and mental state. Days prior to a comeback fight, in an interview by writer John Raygoza, Tyson was asked if it bothers him when the media writes negative things about him.

One has to wonder, though, as Tyson was knocked out in the fourth round of that fight, and his boxing career ended on that night Raygoza, 2004. Only the Mentally Strong Survive The above were examples of athletes whose performance was negatively impacted by media. Tony Dorsett, legendary NFL halfback, said: Like Dorsett, some athletes are able to strive under intense media scrutiny by using it as motivation to achieve success.

The following are several reports of athletes who have been able to survive and thrive in spite of the media.

Venus And Serena In the world of tennis, two standout sisters have received more than their share of negative press.