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Contemporary view of health promotion versus historical view

Definitions of Health 1.

  • In order to undertake a process of decolonisation, it is imperative that all Australian citizens acknowledge and comprehend the impact that invasion, imperialism, colonisation, research and policy have had on the Indigenous people of this country;
  • As can be seen, there have been several efforts to define health, and to construct a unique and universally valid concept of health.

Health is elusive to define and ways of thinking about it have evolved over the years. Three leading approaches include the "medical model", the "holistic model", and the "wellness model": In its most extreme form, the "medical model" views the body as a machine, to be fixed when broken.

It emphasizes treating specific physical diseases, does not accommodate mental or social problems well and, being concerned with resolving health problems, de-emphasizes prevention. This has led logically to measuring health by its absence, e. Therefore health is defined as the absence of disease and the presence of high levels of function. A rather wordy example would be: J Community Health ;8: Alternatively, the mechanical metaphor could be applied to the society itself: The holistic model broadened the medical perspective, and also introduced the idea of positive health although the WHO did not originally use that term.

  • Psicologia, Teoria e Pesquisa, 6 3 , 281-293;
  • Models of health systems developed to fix the Aboriginal problem have only caused further problems for Aboriginal Peoples and perpetuate the ignorance of Indigenous knowledge.

The WHO definition was long considered unmeasurable; the terms were vague. This was less because no-one could invent ways to measure "well-being," indeed, psychologists had done so but more because doing so required subjective assessments that contrasted sharply with the objective indicators favored by the medical model. Applied to a population, the holistic model would again either sum appropriate individual indicators, or would record measures of the well-being of the population as a whole.

Health Protection, Health Promotion, and Disease Prevention at the Workplace

Ina WHO discussion document proposed moving away from viewing health as a state, toward a dynamic model that presented it as a process or a force. This was amplified in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. The definition held that health is "The extent to which an individual or group is able to realize aspirations and satisfy needs, and to change or cope with the environment.

Health is a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living; it is a positive concept, emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities. Related definitions include some that view health in terms of resiliency e. An ecological definition is: Each of these models has something to contribute, though none seems ideal.

The advantage of the medical model is that disease represents a crucial issue facing society, and disease states are readily diagnosed and counted. But this approach is narrow, and in extreme form implies that people with disabilities are "unhealthy," and that health is only about physical disease and mortality.

A further potential limitation to the medical model is its omission of a time dimension. Should we consider as equally healthy two people in equal functional status, one of whom is carrying a fatal gene that will lead to early death?

Further, if prognosis is not included, there is no virtue in prevention. The holistic and wellness models have the advantage of allowing for discrimination of people at the higher end of functioning; they focus on mental as well as physical health, and on broader issues of active participation in life.

They also allow for more subtle discrimination of people who succeed in living productive lives despite a physical impairment: The disadvantage is that these conceptions run the risk of excessive breadth, of incorporating all of life. Thus, they do not distinguish clearly between the state of being healthy and the consequences of being healthy; nor do they distinguish between health and the determinants of health.

For example, social health may be viewed as a determinant more than a marker of health status; it is subject to influence by very different factors. A further challenge is that by espousing a dynamic model of health e.

Hence, we must also move from a strictly linear model of cause and effect toward a systems model in which health is a force, both input and output, and not merely an output of a linear process. Many of these ideas shown in these evolving models of health have been further developed in discussions of alternative medicine.

  • Researchers, health advisors, nurses, doctors, and health professionals need to become aware of their own worldview in order to stop injuring Aboriginal people;
  • As Ermine, Sinclair and Jeffrey
  • Furthermore, the five aforementioned components of illness concept seem to be consistent over time and across different disease;
  • It is not difficult to appreciate that 'Rarely, the topic of Indigenous knowledge is discussed in relation to Aboriginal health' Smylie 2003;
  • Our modern concept of health.

It is an essentially subjective concept, judged by the person themselves. Follies and fallacies in medicine.