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Advances in technology during world war ii the atomic bomb and consequences from it

  1. Companies manufacturing consumer goods such as silverware converted to manufacture military goods such as surgical instruments.
  2. Canadian companies and scientists played a leading role in the development of synthetic rubber.
  3. Medical Developments 1939-1945 Canadian researchers carried out studies on seasickness and motion sickness.
  4. We can point to numerous new inventions and scientific principles that emerged during the war. Pressurised cabins Flying at high altitude puts occupants of an aircraft at risk of hypoxia poor oxygen levels in the blood , altitude sickness, decompression sickness and barotrauma cause by pressure differences.

For all the role of science, mathematics, and new inventions in earlier wars, no war had as profound an effect on the technologies of our current lives than World War II 1939-45.

And no war was as profoundly affected by science, math, and technology than WWII. We can point to numerous new inventions and scientific principles that emerged during the war.

These include advances in rocketry, pioneered by Nazi Germany. Radar allowed nations to track incoming air attacks, guided bombers to their targets, and directed anti-aircraft guns toward airplanes flying high above. Researchers not only constructed the radars, but also devised countermeasures: Two different types of chaff and their canisters, with a ruler for scale.

Chaff was dropped from planes during World War II to jam enemy radar. By constructing complex pieces of electronic equipment that had to be small, rugged, and reliable, radar engineering also set the foundations for modern electronics, especially television. The military found other uses for radar. Meteorologists, for example, could track storms with this new technology—a crucial skill to have when planning major military operations like D-Day.

These new fuses would explode when they neared their targets. By the end of the war, proximity fuses had became a critical component in many anti-aircraft shells. A real shot in the arm World War II also saw advances in medical technology. While penicillin itself is still used today, it was also the precursor to the antibiotics that we take today to keep simple infections from becoming life-threatening illnesses. Medicines against tropical diseases like malaria also became critical for the United States to fight in tropical climates like the South Pacific.

The science and technology of blood transfusions were also perfected during World War II, as was aviation medicine, which allowed people including us to fly safely at high altitudes for long periods.

  1. The cross design on the side helps strengthen the can, while allowing the contents to expand.
  2. In 1944 and 1945, the 300 National Research Council staff who were working on radar research had an average age of about 26.
  3. A cam lever release mechanism and short spout with an air-pipe to the air pocket allows smooth and accurate pouring on the contents.

Studies of night vision, supplemental oxygen, even crash helmets and safety belts emerged from aviation medicine. New materials and new uses for old materials appeared as well. Companies manufacturing consumer goods such as silverware converted to manufacture military goods such as surgical instruments.

Automobile factories re-tooled to make tanks and airplanes. These industrial modifications required rapid and creative engineering, transportation, and communications solutions. Consumers had to conserve, or just do with out. The 3M company felt compelled to run advertisements apologizing to homemakers for the scarcity of Scotch tape in stores across the country; available supplies of the product had been diverted to the front for the war effort.

In the United States, scientists worked to identify which vitamins and minerals were most essential to a healthy body and in what amounts.

Top inventions and technical innovations of World War 2

Studies were conducted to determine how many calories were burned doing various activities. Proper food preparation, storage and handling, and preservation became a top priority for the military. Meeting these challenges meant working first in the laboratory before working in the kitchen.

The development of the D-ration provides a great example.

A three-portion package of these bars would provide a soldier with 1,800 calories of energy. Once the military settled on a chocolate bar for their emergency ration, scientists set about creating it, with the following requirements: By the end of the war, millions of these rations had been produced in the United States and delivered around the world, along with billions of other rations for the military.

In a pioneering effort, the United States mobilized a massive cadre of scientists, engineers, and industrial plants. Oak Ridge, Tennessee, was surrounded by 59,000 acres of farmland and wilderness.

The workers here separated out uranium for the bomb. In Hanford, Washington, the city was chosen for its 500,000 acres of isolated land bordering the Columbia River.

Here workers created the new element plutonium.

Science and Technology in the Second World War

Atomic weapons are so complicated, in terms of the physics, and so difficult to build, in terms of the technology, that two different types of weapons were built, to increase the chances of getting at least one of them right.

The bomb dropped on Hiroshima was a uranium-type bomb, and the one dropped on Nagasaki used plutonium. Scientists in Nazi Germany were working on an atomic bomb as well. But without the huge commitment of resources that the American government offered its scientists, they barely got out of the starting gate.

The Atomic Bomb was like radar in that a small number of devices could make a major impact on military operations, so the new invention could have an effect before going into full scale mass production. By contrast, most conventional weapons took so long to mass produce that if they were not at least on the drawing board when the war started they often arrived too late to impact the war.

  • Best of the University of Toronto;
  • Whenever you heat food in a microwave oven or use washer fluid to clear off a car windshield, to name just two examples, you can credit the groundbreaking work done by Canadian scientists during the Second World War;
  • Companies manufacturing consumer goods such as silverware converted to manufacture military goods such as surgical instruments;
  • Without this conflict, we simply would not have access to the wide range of technology that we use on a daily basis;
  • Scientists in Nazi Germany were working on an atomic bomb as well.

It is notable, however, that the speed with which new weapons systems came on-line, from the drawing board to the factory floor to the battlefield had never before been seen. New ideas for a new age of warfare Again, as in earlier eras, perhaps the most profound impacts of World War II were as much great ideas as they were pieces of hardware.

Before the war, scientists were professors who ran small laboratories with students, with small amounts of money. Before the war scientists were looking into fundamental principles of the natural world, without much regard for practical applications, and they rarely attracted the attention of national governments. During World War II, science became mobilized on a grand scale; many of these professors and their students dropped everything to work on war-related challenges and initiative.

Numerous other laboratories focused on everything from electronics to medical research to psychological testing. Scientists became advisors to presidents on the most pressing issues of national and foreign policy. Ever since World War II, the American government has mobilized science, mathematics, and engineering on a vast scale, whether in large government laboratories, by funding research in universities, or by purchasing high-tech products from companies in industry.