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Stadium safety structure development in the uk criminology essay

Chi-square tests for two independent samples were used along with Crosstabs procedures to test the differences in service and security between journalists and spectators. The results revealed that a successful security model in mega-sport events is based on two pillars: Other aspects, such as, organizational theory, sport marketing, sport facility management, sport law and policy, economics and finance, gender and diversity, have been classified less important, because they cannot stand in the absence of security.

  • London was awarded the right to host the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games, and the United Kingdom suffered from recent terrorist attacks;
  • Chelladurai and Chang 2000 cite three targets of quality evaluations;
  • Other aspects, such as, organizational theory, sport marketing, sport facility management, sport law and policy, economics and finance, gender and diversity, have been classified less important, because they cannot stand in the absence of security;
  • The protection of human rights must be imbedded in the strategy for the effective combat against terrorism and it cannot be successful safety if there is a lack of respect for human beings and the values of freedom.

Such scenario proved that the majority of our sport venues were and are still not protected. As an example of the difficulty of articulating the concept, Rothschild 1995 describes human security philosophically as part of both a broadening and a deepening of what we once viewed as security. She argues that the focus on state security must be extended to include supranational systems as well as the individual condition,and the range of included harms must be broadened to include serious threats to either.

Security Models in Mega Sport Events between Safety and Human Rights (Case of Vancouver 2010)

However, the controversy over the security concept leads sport managers to exaggerate and reach extreme resolutions that may harm the dignity of the people and threaten the human rights value. So, how can we reach a compromise whereby we protect our spectators by avoiding any prohibited item to get into the venues while ensuring an excellent customer service? This discussion leads us to better understand the role of each individual in the security process and to determine the responsibility of the highest rank of government officials to the common security agent in charge of a simple task during the sport event.

Protection from either, he believed, was the absolute responsibility of the state. They play on randomness to keep whole populations in fear,anticipation, and disestablishment.

The full protection of people and facilities in sport events cannot be reached instantly, rather it is a long-term and highly complex process requiring considerable data gathering. For this reason, sport managers are dealing in each event with different platforms, new criteria of the hosting country, its own history with terrorism, its prior experience with events, and mainly its proper philosophy of the security model whether the so-called hard model, or the soft model, or even an intermediate model.

We should be alert that critical infrastructure CI is a vital component to develop any security strategy. However, prototypes must respect the psychological states of spectators, because they are attending a show and provide an excellent customer service in sport events.

These norms are valid for different event sizes and for multiple levels of broadcasting. According to Gibson 1998event sport tourism refers to tourists who travel to watch sporting events.

To frame the theory context of our study, we consider SME with two essential grounds. First, the socially contested domain, that is develop the concept of the security field, as derived particularly from the sociology of Bourdieu 1990, 1993, pp. In fact, critical infrastructure for sport venues is interconnected with other systems: The main hindrance appears to be a lack of information and expertise available on risk management for sporting events.

The major gap in CI lies in the difference in security strategies between the public sector managed by the government and the private sector owned by individuals or institutions.

Indeed, it is worth highlighting that the National Strategy and Action Plan for CI establishes a risk-based approach for strengthening the resiliency and demands billion of dollars. Sport facilities also need an enormous segment to mend its vulnerabilities. More importantly, protecting CIs must endure with the effective training of staff members and provide the necessary training to enhance performances in skill development processes. Atkinson and Young 2002 provide a general explanation of the nexus between sport and terrorism: Especially in those situations where athletic contests draw sizable international audiences in geographical settings already embroiled in strife, sport can be utilized as a vehicle for political sparring and waging and disseminating forms of political violence against others.

Whereas usually audiences attend sport mega events for a noble cause, such as, to apprehend peace principals and to spread camaraderie among people coming from all over the world. First, security from the gate should prevent unauthorized entrance to the venue and perform the following duties: This is a final check that follows extra-large security procedures: Considering the time frame and activities associated with hosting the event, the threat to the World Cup starts with the building and renovation of sport facilities.

Although infusing the event preparation with high level of security, such pact could be the reason for jamming the host country to gain the organization,the high expenses may be the cause for this failure. The security budget is often cited as a reason why many cities will not host the Games. Customer Service in Sporting Venues Enhancing customer service by event managers EMs is now included in the requirements of human rights institutions, for spectators may not be treated as criminals when attending a sport show.

This feeling amplifies with the size of the event; therefore, the more important the event is, the greater its historical dimension becomes for the spectator. That is why, dealing with this situation is delicate, because EMs aim at delivering excellent customer service while ensuring strict security rules. Customer satisfaction has been stadium safety structure development in the uk criminology essay as an interpreter of intentions to attend future sporting events Cronin et al.

Putting everyone who wanted access to the venue through a magnetic detector and searching their bags mag-and-bag is actually quietly accepted because sport customers know well that sport venues are not excluded from terrorist attacks and everyone will be subject to airport-type security with mag-and-bag and X-ray machines. Although event spectators recognize that these security measures are first established for their protection, they are concerned about the class of people dealing with them at the gates, spectators are stadium safety structure development in the uk criminology essay anxious when treated by police officers, or military soldiers.

Therefore, the major concern of spectators is no longer the way they have been welcomed, nor the security check time, it is rather that civilians have to do with officials while attending a show.

Situational Crime Prevention

Service quality Service quality is the conformity to the standard required by ISI. The consumer satisfaction literature views these expectations as predictions about what is likely to happen during an impending transaction, whereas the service quality literature views them as desires or wants expressed by the consumer Kandampully, 2002. Lehtinen and Lehtinen 1991 proposed two approaches to the analysis of service quality and its dimensions.

The first approach contains three dimensions consisting of physical quality, interactive quality, and corporate quality. The second approach to the analysis of service quality and its dimensions was composed of two dimensions: A positive experience for spectators let them return for future games. Therefore, EMS make spectators enjoy spending time at the stadium.

Various attributes are crucial to attain the constancy of spectators in attending games: However, venue access is actually a pillar in service quality. Venue access is also different from an event to another and from a country system to another and is mainly managed each time by staff, by civilian employees in the reception, or by official security people. The evaluation of service quality depends on knowing and comparing price, employee action, ambiance stimulation, program evaluation, privilege appreciation and security.

Chelladurai and Chang 2000 cite three targets of quality evaluations: Authors classify service quality in special dimensions, but focus on the outcome quality in determining the overall service quality with search and experience outcome quality.

Ko and Pastore 2004 propose a dimensional model of service quality in the recreation industry composed of program quality, interaction quality, and outcome quality. The controversy over the balance between liberty and security highlights that jeopardizing freedom for the sake of security creates the tension between security policies and freedom security prevailing over liberty.

Besides economic and sport developments, a mega event serves as a historical landmark and brings prestige and prosperity to the host country.

Hosting sport mega events is the responsibility of the government. In case of errors, such burden has been criticized from the international opinion and has also been disparaged by domestic politicians. The protection of human rights must be imbedded in the strategy for the effective combat against terrorism and it cannot be successful safety if there is a lack of respect for human beings and the values of freedom.

Precarious balance between security and freedom The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms 5th Amendment in the USA obliges the state to prove criminal behavior and not to take any action against a person suspected of a crime, so everyone is presumed innocent until proven guilty.

Ashworth 1998 has rightly suggested that the notion of balance is a rhetorical device of which one must be extremely wary. Waldron 2003 has identified a problematic connotation of quantity and precision in the language of balance, including the assumption that the relation between security and liberty is a stadium safety structure development in the uk criminology essay game.

Perhaps a separate definition of security and liberty stadium safety structure development in the uk criminology essay find an intersection that satisfies both; however, we do not need to identify security with liberty. Johnson 2008 further supported: Either explicitly or implicitly, the assumption is that we must accept that we have to forgo a certain amount of liberty in our desire for security.

Security became the main condition to host the Olympic Games and other large scale sporting events. The expenditure was almost four times greater than for Sydney. Then, the role of the police officer third layer comes in case of prohibited items found with the intention to infiltrate the venue. In this situation, a male factor is treated with the right corps, and human rights rule is respected. The timing goal set up for the security procedures in the gate is thirty seconds perspectator.

The training of screeners, X-Ray operators, and their supervisors was based on ensuring full security vocation while providing gentle spectator access through their portals with the finest performances and an excellent customer service.

It is worth highlighting that the Special Reporter on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights while countering terrorism, operating under the new Human Rights Council, works to identify, exchange, and promote best practices on measures to counter terrorism that respect human rights and fundamental freedom.

  • Safety Science, 46 2;
  • Various attributes are crucial to attain the constancy of spectators in attending games;
  • Johnson 2008 also considered the timing and asked;
  • Taliban fighters who had fled or surrendered in 2001 mostly sought to reconcile and submit to the Karzai government, right up to the level of Taliban military commander and minister of defence Afghan 2011;
  • Other five-point summated rating scale used the following format:

Security agents represent a brilliant facet to implement the respect for human rights. Then, what are the tools to provide quality service for the spectators? Do timing, security people, and quality information guarantee the comfort desired by the customers? Johnson 2008 also considered the timing and asked: Moreover, who is responsible for taking the security measures to prepare, prevent, deter, or delay a future terrorist attack on a sporting event or stadium?

Ultimately, what are the means to raise the trust that spectators are fully protected while attending the games? These research questions culminate to our main hypothesis: A security model in sport events should respect both the full protection of the venue and the value of human rights while welcoming spectators and subsequently: The success of a security model in mega sport events is highly conditioned by the cooperation between all corps in charge of this mission, such as government, police, local city head, athletic directors, private security companies, and the structure stadium safety structure development in the uk criminology essay use.

Participants The study sample covered 1081 respondents Table 1composed of 286 journalists and 795 spectators.

Spectators were met on the opening and closing ceremonies, during the competitions in the venues indoors or outdoors. Media people in the study sample were represented by 75 journalists from Canada 26.

The percentages of spectators are as follows: Extra information was included in the survey content regarding the citizenship and the gender of the respondent. The respondents were randomly assigned for City Venues: Measures The questionnaire consists of items.

The response format for all questions was the five-point Likert scale, with the following values: Other five-point summated rating scale used the following format: In B6 and B9, attendees determine and classify responsibilities.

To determine the content validity of this survey, three experts—university professor specialist in sport event organization, a mega EM, and professional in customer service and marketing—were invited to provide feedback concerning the conceptual appropriateness of the items. Based on this feedback, modifications were made. Then, a pilot test was made and granted a reliability coefficient of. Based on the relevant results of validity and reliability, the questions were judged to be conceptually appropriate.


A level of significance of. Customer service in the event The study gave a special importance to the timing as a component of quality service. The difference between groups is very significant X2: Statistics showed a significant difference between both categories of our samples X2: