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Choose one of the following terrestrial resource challenges loss of agricultural land or reducing so

  • Aggregate urban statistics may suggest rapid urban change but many of the world's largest cities had more people moving out than in during their last inter-census period;
  • This can be seen in the high life expectancies evident in the best governed European, Asian and North and South American cities;
  • The level of urbanization is the share itself, and the rate of urbanization is the rate at which that share is changing;
  • This can be seen in the high life expectancies evident in the best governed European, Asian and North and South American cities.

Share via Email This article is over 9 years old The UK "imports" more than half the water it uses, if you include water used to produce imported goods — including wheat. The figure is based on a UN report which calculated the economic value of services provided by ecosystems destroyed annually, such as diminished rainfall for crops or reduced flood protection.

The problem is also getting worse as populations and consumption keep growing faster than technology finds new ways of expanding what can be produced from the natural world. This had led the report to predict that by 2030, if nothing changes, mankind would need two planets to sustain its lifestyle. Its capacity to support a thriving diversity of species, humans included, is large but fundamentally limited.

  1. These include the multiplication in the size of the world's economy, the shift in economic activities and employment structures from agriculture to industry and services and within services to information production and exchange , and the virtual disappearance of colonial empires.
  2. Breakdowns of the overall figure show the tropical species index fell by half and the temperate index remained stable but at historically low levels. Sir David King, the British government's former chief scientific adviser, said.
  3. Over the same period the ecological footprint of the human population has nearly doubled, says the report. UN projections suggest that the world's urban population will grow by more than a billion people between 2010 and 2025, while the rural population will hardly grow at all United Nations 2008.

When human demand on this capacity exceeds what is available - when we surpass ecological limits - we erode the health of the Earth's living systems. Ultimately this loss threatens human well-being.

Sir David King, the British government's former chief scientific adviser, said: For the first time the report also contains detailed information on the "water footprint" of every country, and claims 50 countries are already experiencing "moderate to severe water stress on a year-round basis". It also shows that 27 countries are "importing" more than half the water they consume - in the form of water used to produce goods from wheat to cotton - including the UK, Switzerland, Austria, Norway and the Netherlands.

  1. Breakdowns of the overall figure show the tropical species index fell by half and the temperate index remained stable but at historically low levels. For the first time the report also contains detailed information on the "water footprint" of every country, and claims 50 countries are already experiencing "moderate to severe water stress on a year-round basis".
  2. Its capacity to support a thriving diversity of species, humans included, is large but fundamentally limited. When human demand on this capacity exceeds what is available - when we surpass ecological limits - we erode the health of the Earth's living systems.
  3. Urban areas provide many potential advantages for improving living conditions through the economies of scale and proximity they provide for most forms of infrastructure and services.

Based on figures from 2005, the index indicates global biodiversity has declined by nearly a third since 1970. Breakdowns of the overall figure show the tropical species index fell by half and the temperate index remained stable but at historically low levels.

Divided up another way, indices for terrestrial, freshwater and marine species, and for tropical forests, drylands and grasslands all showed significant declines.

Of the main geographic regions, only the Nearctic zone around the Arctic sea and covering much of North America showed no overall change. Over the same period the ecological footprint of the human population has nearly doubled, says the report. At that rate humans would need two planets to provide for their wants in the 2030s, two decades earlier than the previous Living Planet report forecast just two years ago.

This figure is "conservative" as it does not include the risk of a sudden shock or "feedback loop" such as an acceleration of climate change, says the report. But the latest figures show that today three-quarters of the world's population live in countries which consume more than they can replenish. Addressing concerns that national boundaries are an artificial way of dividing up the world's resources, Leape says: A person's footprint ranges vastly across the globe, from eight or more "global hectares" 20 acres or more for the biggest consumers in the United Arab Emirates, the US, Kuwait and Denmark, to half a hectare in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Haiti, Afghanistan and Malawi.

  • Derived from statistics in United Nations 2008;
  • However, hundreds of millions of urban dwellers face under-nutrition today, although this is far more related to their lack of income than to a lack of capacity to produce food;
  • For the first time the report also contains detailed information on the "water footprint" of every country, and claims 50 countries are already experiencing "moderate to severe water stress on a year-round basis";
  • Differences in rural and urban rates of natural increase influenced by differences in fertility and mortality rates also influence urbanization, although generally these act to reduce urbanization;
  • So the key issues with regard to agriculture and urbanization are whether the growing and changing demands for agricultural products from growing urban populations can be sustained while at the same time underpinning agricultural prosperity and reducing rural and urban poverty;
  • Most urbanization is the result of net rural to urban migration.

The global average consumption was 2. The UK, with an average footprint of about 5.

  • But the latest figures show that today three-quarters of the world's population live in countries which consume more than they can replenish;
  • This article has been cited by other articles in PMC;
  • It is also important not to overstate the speed of urban change;
  • Two key demographic changes currently under way and likely to continue in the next few decades are the decline in population growth rates and the ageing of the population;
  • These include the multiplication in the size of the world's economy, the shift in economic activities and employment structures from agriculture to industry and services and within services to information production and exchange , and the virtual disappearance of colonial empires.