College papers help

The twenty first century workplace seven major changes

From the late 1970s through the mid-1990s, the gap in earnings between the top and bottom wage earners grew substantially. Though the trend of rising inequality that we experienced for almost two decades finally began to reverse during the late 1990s, the current earnings gap remains much larger than it was 20 years ago.

And according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the real earnings of men in the bottom group fell by 22 percent during this period.

Some middle-aged workers are losing the security they once had. During the first half of the 1990s, the job tenure of older male workers declined.

Displaced workers with more education fared considerably better than their less-educated counterparts. Workers who want to climb higher, need skills and training to do it. Skills are the ticket In the information-based, skills-intensive economy of the twenty-first century, one thing is clear: Throughout the economy, occupations that require a college degree are growing twice as fast as others. Today, it is 71 percent. Real wages for men without post-secondary education have declined significantly over the past 20 years.

But not everyone has the same opportunity. The percent of adults with disabilities who have not completed high school is more than double that of adults without disabilities. In 1997, for the first time ever, the high-school graduation rates for young African-Americans and whites were statistically on par at 86 percent and 88 percent, respectively.

More The twenty first century workplace seven major changes, whites, and Hispanics are attending college. However, African-Americans and Hispanics continue to lag behind in college attendance. This means that these minority groups lack access to many of the skills that higher education provides. Skills include cognitive hard skills and communication soft skills as well as education credentials and job-related skills.

In many instances, there is a mismatch between the skills jobs require and those that applicants possess. More than 20 percent of adults read at or below the fifth-grade level.

A 1996 American Management Association survey of mid-size and larger businesses found that 19 percent of the job applicants taking employer-administered tests lacked the math and reading skills necessary for the jobs for which they were applying. America does not face a worker shortage but a skills shortage.

The challenge is to invest in the workers who are already participating in the workforce, and to identify and tap into untapped labor pools. We need to make sure no worker becomes "jobsolete. Technology, and the skills needed to master it, are taking their rightful place on the negotiating table.

In some industries, such as telecommunications, the issue is not job security, but employment security and providing incumbent workers with education and training opportunities to gain the skills they need to stay ahead in the changing workplace. Regardless of his or her skill level, it is essential to make work pay for every worker. No one who works full time should live in poverty. Raising the minimum wage and expanding the Earned Income Tax Credit are two policies that have helped make work pay.

Collective bargaining historically also has played an important role. In 1998, unionized workers overall earned nearly one-third more than nonunion workers and were more likely to earn health and pension benefits.

Chapter 3 (Lecture Outline and Line Art Presentation) The Changing Environment of Management.

African-American union workers earned 45 percent more than nonunionized African-Americans. Unionized workers typically have higher skill levels than nonunion workers, which also contributes to their higher wages.

In addition, a 1997 study found that productivity in unionized firms with high-performance work practices was about 10 percent higher than in comparable nonunion firms. For others, they were always a myth. Today, Harriet usually does not stay home. Nearly three out of four women with children are in the workforce. Often, neither Ozzie nor Harriet get home by 5: Workers seeking to balance sufficient earnings with family time are stretched. To make arrangements with the caregivers for their aging parents.

And as we look to the future, the vital challenge of child care and elder care will grow. In 1996, almost 20 percent of American households provided informal care to a relative or friend age 50 or older.

Workplace Trends in the 21st Century

Futurework finds that this percentage is estimated to more than double in the next five years. Combined with the responsibilities of child care, these obligations add up. So do the costs to employers. As baby boomers grow older, and life expectancy rises, more Americans will find themselves "sandwiched"- caring at the same time for their children and their aging parents.

While women in particular are affected by this phenomenon, they are by no means alone in the "sandwich generation. Men and women will share equally in the challenges of managing family and work time.

  1. The creation of a global economy has been facilitated by accords between nations on trade.
  2. What are we losing as a society? The ascendancy of knowledge workers 4.
  3. Organization of work or work organization refers to management systems, supervisory practices, and production and service processes and their influence on the way in which work is performed Sauter et al. For others, they were always a myth.

This new mindset will dramatically affect the way we work and the way we view work in the twenty-first century. With e-mail, pagers, laptop computers, and mobile phones, work is no longer confined to one setting, it is pervasive. The virtual office never closes, opening the potential for abuse if employers require homework above and beyond the normal working hours.

Technology can give workers flexibility, but access presents another big challenge. The home office is becoming more commonplace. Half of all homes had a personal computer in 1999.

But even though the Internet can be accessed anywhere, not all Americans have equal access to the Internet.

  1. Portable personal computer shipments grew from approximately 1. Never bet on a race unless you are running in it.
  2. Such schedules have long been known to be associated with increased stress and disease prevalence and may be associated with an increased frequency or severity of workplace injury as well Office of Technology Assessment, 1991. Furthermore, these processes increase the cognitive demands on employees, the responsibilities of employees, and the interdependence among all employees in the plant.
  3. Department of Labor, 1999b found the average number of hours worked per week to be relatively stable from 1960 to 1998, varying between 38 and 40 hours per week. What ethical issues are hidden in these technologies?
  4. While alternative working arrangements can help those who choose a nontraditional form of employment, a majority are not in these arrangements by choice. Immigrant workers, collaborative work across national boundaries using Internet technology, and international alliances and mergers are all contributing to work in multicultural environments.

As information technology expands, the information divide continues to widen. A July 1999 Commerce Department report found that between 1997 and 1998, the gap in Internet access between those at the highest and lowest income levels grew by 29 percent.

  • Diversity,Global Economy, and Technology;
  • These have contributed to temporary job displacements for many workers, permanent job loss for some workers, and expanded skills requirements for most workers U;
  • Diversity,Global Economy, and Technology;
  • The following developments in work organization are most pronounced in large and midsize firms.

Whites are more likely to have access from home than are African-Americans or Hispanics from any location. What are we losing as a society? What is the effect on social relations?

Green Jobs and Women

Work, after all, is more than just a job or paycheck. It is where we meet friends, share ideas, and build a common sense of purpose and a social network. With voice mail, e-mail, and computer networks, how do we preserve the human network and the social interaction that work has helped to facilitate? What takes its place? Employers want greater flexibility to compete in the global market.

Roughly 1 in 10 workers fits into an alternative arrangement. Nearly four out of five employers use some form of nontraditional staffing arrangement.

A growing number 1. The number of agency temps increased by 10 percent from 1995 to 1997, considerably faster than the 2. For many employers, these arrangements make sense.

Workers, too, may be attracted to the mobility and choice associated with nontraditional jobs. In some cases, these arrangements may provide the flexibility they need to juggle work and family obligations. For example, slightly more than half of women independent contractors combined their working arrangement with their work at home raising children.

Roughly one in four independent contractors worked part-time compared to one-in-five traditional workers. Full-time, independent contractors earned more than average traditional workers, but agency temp workers earned less. In addition to earning less, temp agency workers are more likely to be young, female, and the twenty first century workplace seven major changes. While alternative working arrangements can help those who choose a nontraditional form of employment, a majority are not in these arrangements by choice.

In fact, 59 percent of agency temps would prefer a traditional job. In addition, many temps who work part time would prefer to work full time but are not offered that option.

Empowering workers with choice In the twenty-first century, the most successful workers will be those who are able to choose the employment relationship that gives them sufficient wages and benefits, and ability to care for their families. The challenge will come in ensuring that future workers who prefer nontraditional options have on-the-job protections. Today, many do not.

Only seven percent of agency temp workers receive employer-provided healthcare benefits, and just one in ten is eligible for an employer-sponsored pension plan.

Nontraditional work arrangements can raise practical and legal questions about the statutory protections available to workers.

Workers may be unsure of their rights, and firms may be unsure of their obligations. Government agencies, in turn, will need to understand the nature of a work arrangement before deciding how best to enforce a particular law.