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The different components of the crime prevention through environmental design

Tweet A Brief History of CPTED Crime prevention through environmental design CPTED [pronounced sep-ted] is the "proper design and effective use of the built environment that can lead to a reduction in the fear and incidence of crime, and an improvement in the quality of life. Ray Jeffrey reflects the expanded, current, more holistic perspective of CPTED,2 encompassing 1 the criminal offender perspective regarding an environment and the risk of getting caught when committing a crime and 2 the social dynamics, sense of ownership of the environment, and their associated protective actions by persons who work, live, or traverse the environment en route to another destination.

This definition and the associated principles of environmental design have been established over decades of research by Wood, Jacobs, Angel, Jeffrey, Newman, Saville and Cleveland. For example, Oscar Newman's research for the U.

Across the street, an older, smaller row-house complex, Carr Square Village, occupied by an identical population, was fully occupied and free of crime during and after the construction, occupancy, and demolition of Pruitt-Igoe. Newman's research regarding multiple communities, including Pruitt-Igoe, into what caused these differences in crime resulted in a new, but related, term of "defensible space.

Design features that clearly indicate public routes and discourage access to private structural elements. These features decrease an opportunity for crime by creating in an offender a perception of unacceptable risk when attempting access to private areas, which marks the stranger as a possible intruder.

Such design features include placement of entrances and exits, fencing, and landscaping to control traffic flow.

Crime prevention through environmental design

Design features that increase the visibility of a property. These features maximize the ability of persons in the area to see persons in the vicinity and avoid trouble and allow external activities to be seen from adjacent building structures by persons who could call for help. Such design features include landscaping, lighting, window and stairway placement, and building entrance and garage layouts. Design features that clearly indicate public and private structural elements of a property.

An individual will develop a sense of territoriality for a space with frequent activities in an area, a sense of ownership. With this feeling of ownership the individual will "want" to defend his environment.

This ownership does not necessarily mean legal ownership; it maybe a perceived ownership, such as the sense of ownership that employees feel for the office in which they work. Earlier concepts that have been incorporated into the three major principles are: Deterioration of a property indicates less ownership involvement which can result in more vandalism, also known as the Broken Window Theory. Crime is more prevalent in areas that are not maintained; as a result law-abiding persons do not feel safe and do not want to frequent those areas.

Paul Cozens and Terence Love

This feature is generally associated with environmental land use and reflects adjoining land uses and the ways in which a site can be protected by specific design styles. Since criminals know their neighborhoods and potential targets of crime, they are more likely to strike at times when they will not be discovered, and possibly apprehended.

This technique is the opposite of "natural" which reflects crime prevention as a by-product from normal and routine use of an environment. The integration of similar, but customer service oriented CTPED strategies in the initial environmental design may be as effective, but less threatening.

Because of their direct concern for these objectives, law enforcement agencies around the world have embraced these concepts and worked diligently within their communities and the local community resources to implement these principles in ways that are appropriate for their environments.

Others utilize the concepts to guide businesses and homeowners to assess their environment and its characteristics to reduce opportunities for crime. In Knoxville, Tennessee, police, traffic engineers, public works officials, and residents participated in CPTED training and its implementation to address drug trafficking and excessive vehicle traffic in residential areas.

This effort required street redesign, revised park schedules, and volunteer-led security survey teams. In Sarasota, Florida, a successful plan to reduce crime in one neighborhood has resulted in the integration of CPTED principles into the local planning process for all development and redevelopment in that city.

No group alone can successfully implement these principles because each has a unique perspective and knowledge base. The combination of that knowledge into a unified approach is necessary for the creation of an environment that deters crime and creates an environment where persons want to live, work, and shop in and feel "ownership" so that they will do their part to ensure its protection.

Some of those listed in the Design Safer Communities Handbook are listed below: Improved perception of safety and livability in public areas and neighborhoods ML More revenue from safer and busier business districts ML Increased use of public parks and recreation facilities by residents ML Increased opportunities to develop crime prevention partnerships with residents LLE Identification of potential crime problems in the community before they become serious LLE Recognition that crime prevention is everyone's responsibility LLE Improved sense of security and quality of life through reduced fear the different components of the crime prevention through environmental design crime CR Increased interaction among residents and stronger neighborhood bonds CR New crime prevention and problem-solving skills CR Enhanced knowledge of city government agencies and other resource CR 14 The implementation of CPTED principles can help support community crime prevention goals.

Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design

The implementation of the principles, when considered early in the design process for a community, does not increase the costs to residents or business owners. The decision process for the review and acceptance of a project will generally not be lengthened. In some circumstances, the community design groups have worked to modify the local codes for future projects, to incorporate the CPTED principles and further enhance the safety and use of environments in that community.

The following is a generic process that reflects key considerations in site design and instruction, and examples of CPTED concerns that should be addressed during each phase. Some communities require a pre-application meeting to discuss and review the expected land use before the design process begins.

Discussions on the location, siting, and design of new or remodeled facilities can reduce the costs of retrofitting a design to address the desired CPTED principles. Once the design has been established, changes may be limited to those required by law or policy-no matter how useful from a CPTED viewpoint they may be. Therefore, CPTED input before the plan is reviewed can save the owner a significant amount of money and time. Such a review is not a standard practice in municipal and corporate developments.

This level of the design presents a list of the requirements regarding the intended uses of the property. This document includes the general site organization, including the building location, parking location, site entrances and exits, and building entrances and exits.

How will the development affect the existing neighborhood and how will the neighborhood affect the security of the development? These relationships will affect later decisions regarding access control measures, surveillance opportunities from various locations on and adjacent to the site, design details, and policies regarding use.

This level of design lists the size and shape of buildings, parking, and other site features. Building structural features defined at this time include plumbing, lighting, and communications systems; and door and window types and locations.

What are the design influences with regard to opportunities for crime, particularly the location of "public" and "private" activities, automobile and pedestrian routes, and the use of landscaping to provide places of concealment or reduce surveillance opportunities.

Other features that have to be considered are the placement of fences, walls, dumpsters, signs and graphics, and lighting.

Local agencies' reviews of plans are limited to those items required by ordinance or local policy. Persons in the review process will review different components of the proposal; e. Crime prevention and security issues are left to the law enforcement representative or CPTED reviewer-a review which is generally the exception than the rule-and such comments, if there is a review, may be viewed as optional.

Planning Commission Review and Approval: This step may be required only for large projects. If there is a review it does provide an opportunity for public input on issues of crime and safety. Construction Documentation Construction documents include the construction drawings and a manual of materials and product specifications.

These documents are used to solicit bids for construction services and building materials and products, and to guide the site and building construction and installation of related materials.

The Dark Side of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED)

This documentation is often overlooked as a source of information that is beneficial is assessing the ability of a site and its buildings to reduce crime. The specifications manual can be useful in identifying problems that could result from the use of certain materials with regard to life expectancy and required maintenance.

Bidding and Negotiation During Bidding and Negotiation the contractors may request material or product substitutions to reduce cost. Contractors may not understand that the substitutions are not "equivalent" and may negatively impact the CPTED principles that should be addressed.

The substitutions can "appear" to be beneficial to the client but significantly reduce the ability of the resulting environment to reduce crime.

Examples of CPTED desirable materials are graffiti resistant materials on walls and other surfaces, the use of constant rather than average lighting standards for pedestrians in designated areas, and the use of landscaping materials that only grow to a certain height or can easily be maintained for ease of surveillance by persons in the area. Construction Observation of the construction activities throughout the construction process is vital to the success of the design to ensure that the design is true to the plan and the specified materials are used in the construction process.

The unauthorized substitutions in materials that may be contrary to the CPTED principle to be implemented in the design. Site Use-After Construction The way that the property will be used when it is completed is as vital to the prevention of crime as its design, including the hours of activity and scheduling, assignment of space, property maintenance, and disciplinary code for violators.

  1. Designing the program or intervention 4. Restrict private activities to defined private areas.
  2. Physical barriers, as the name implies, are substantial in nature and physically prevent movement.
  3. The idea is to place unsafe or less safe in crime terms activities e.
  4. Formal surveillance methods, such as closed-circuit television, electronic monitoring, fixed guard posts, and organized security patrols, are normally used only when natural surveillance alone cannot sufficiently protect an area.
  5. Utilizing curved streets with multiple view points to multiple houses' entrances as well as making the escape route difficult to follow.

The implementation of CPTED principles by property owners, managers, and residents is necessary to the deterrence of crime and the sense of safety for the residents. The checklist states the functional area performance standards by topic area, indicating whether the standard is applicable during the Site Plan Review or during the Building Permit Review; possible strategies for implementation of that principle-including a write-in section; and provides a column for the results of the agency analysis, including whether the design conforms, requires revision, or is not applicable.

The topic areas for natural surveillance include: The topic areas for access control include building identification, entrances, landscaping, landscaping location, security, and signage. The topic areas for ownership are maintenance and materials. The topics covered include access control, maintenance, natural surveillance, and territorial reinforcement. This allows the reader to become familiar with the concepts, assess his surroundings, and identify areas for improvement.

Therefore, the implementation of some CPTED principles without consideration for the space and its use may not result in the desired results.

Use the examples noted below cautiously and within the perspective of a unified, professional design. When considering the design of an area, the present and future uses need to be considered.

Natural Surveillance Fully illuminate all doorways that open to the outside. The front door to the building should be at least partially visible from the street. Install windows on all sides of the building to provide full visibility of the property. Construct elevators and stairwells to be open and well-lighted, not enclosed behind solid walls.

Provide appropriate illumination to doorways that open to the outside and sidewalks.

  1. With an atmosphere of safety, persons are more likely to frequent businesses and shops. Motion sensor lights at all entry points into the residence.
  2. The major idea here was that by removing the reinforcements for crime, it would not occur. Ray Jeffery, a criminologist from Florida State University.
  3. Use exterior lighting at night and keep it in working order.

Select and install appropriate landscaping that will allow unobstructed views of vulnerable doors and windows from the street and other properties. Avoid landscaping that might create blind spots. Use security-focused, rather than aesthetically pleasing, lighting that enables pedestrians to see clearly and to identify potential threats at night.

For example, high or low pressure sodium vapor lights can provide evenly distributed lighting that reduces patches of darkness at the ground level and enables the human eye to pick up details, with reduced energy consumption. Ensure signs in the front windows of businesses and commercial storefronts do not cover the windows or block necessary views of the exterior space.

  • This is a revision of an article by the same name originally published in the April 1981 edition of Security Management Magazine;
  • The design and development of the program or intervention occur in phases 2 and 3 and for many programs are modified in phase 4;
  • The front door to the building should be at least partially visible from the street;
  • The use of defensible space in conjunction with natural surveillance is a potent crime prevention tool;
  • CPTED is a crucial element of the service that Design for Security provide, and the benefits are optimal when the strategy is applied in the earliest possible stage of the design process, before integral design decisions are set in stone.

Position restrooms in office buildings to be visible from nearby offices. Keep dumpsters visible and avoid creating blind spots or hiding places, or place them in secured corrals or garages. Natural Access Control Use signs to direct visitors or patrons to building entrances and parking.

In a business or institution, require visitors to pass through a "checkpoint" attended by those in authority; e. Locate check-out counters at the front of the store, clearly visible from the outside. Provide clearly marked transitional zones that indicate movement from public to semipublic to private spaces. Install paving treatments, plantings, and architectural design features, such as columned gateways, to direct visitors to the proper entrance and away from private areas.

Design streets to discourage cut-through or high-speed traffic. Install walkways in locations safe for pedestrians, and keep them unobstructed. Keep balcony railings and patio enclosures less than 42 inches high and avoid using opaque materials. Block off dead-end spaces with fences or gates. Prevent easy access to the roof or fire escape from the ground.

Territorial Reinforcement Use front stoops or porches in homes to create a transitional area between the street and the home.