College papers help


Describe the differences between the theories of taylor and maslow

  1. Reinforcement in the workplace usually takes place on a partial or irregular reinforcement schedule, when reward is not given for every response.
  2. Concerning the expectancy theory, motivation is a combination of valence, instrumentality and expectancy.
  3. Human beings have needs that are hierarchically ranked Maslow, 1943; Maslow, 1954. Motivators and hygiene factors depending on job satisfaction and dissatisfaction Figure 7.
  4. Weightman,1999 Furthermore, he stated that people will most likely engage in desired behaviours if they are positively reinforced for doing so and rewards are most effective if they immediately follow the desired response. Every individual in an organization is motivated by something different.

Self-actualization Need for achievement There are some critics for all need theories. Although, there is a consensus for the general concept: Skinner's reinforcement theory The Reinforcement theory, based on Skinner's operant conditioning theory, says that behaviour can be formed by its consequences Gordon, 1987. If a student gets positive verbal feedback and a good grade for his test, this reinforcement encourages the performance of the behaviour to recur.

Forgot Password?

For example, when a student who is usually late to class gets positive feedback when he arrives on time, the student becomes more and more punctual. Positive reinforcement motivates to get the anticipated reinforcement of required behaviour.

  • Vroom supposes that expectancy, instrumentality and valence are multiplied together to determine motivation;
  • There are many different approaches of motivation;
  • These incentives may derive from us or they can come from other persons;
  • It defines that people have different set of goals and that they can be motivated if they believe that there is a positive connection between efforts and performance, that the performance will result in a good remuneration, that this remuneration will satisfy a special need and that the wish to satisfy this need is strong enough to make the effort worthwhile;
  • As a result, employees were given more freedom to make decisions on the job and greater attention was paid to informal work groups.

In this case the meal is a negative reinforcement because it eliminates the unpleasant state hunger. Contrary to positive and negative reinforcement, punishment can be undesired reinforcement, or reinforce undesired behaviour.

  • The theory was suggested by Adams 1965 and is based on Social Exchange theory;
  • These three factors are the following Figure 4;
  • One criticism relates to the classification of the factors as hygiene or motivator;
  • Reward must meet someone's needs, expectations, must be applied equitably, and must be consistent.

For example, if a student is always late to class and thus he gets negative verbal feedback and also always has to tidy up the classroom at the end of the day, in this case the undesirable behaviour is reinforced with an undesirable reinforcer.

The punishment declines the tendency to be late. According to the theory, positive reinforcement is a much better motivational technique than punishment because punishment: Once certain behaviour has been conditioned through repetitive reinforcement, elimination of the reinforcement will decline the motivation to perform that behaviour.

Therefore it is better not to give a reward every time.

Difference Between Tayor And Maslow Theory Of Motivation.

Reinforcement in the workplace usually takes place on a partial or irregular reinforcement schedule, when reward is not given for every response. The reinforcement theory is included in many other motivation theories.

  • Which motivation theory have you found to be most useful in explaining why people behave in a certain way?
  • Vroom supposes that expectancy, instrumentality and valence are multiplied together to determine motivation;
  • Sports psychology in particular has adopted its recommendations.

Reward must meet someone's needs, expectations, must be applied equitably, and must be consistent. The desired behaviour must be clear and realistic, but the issue remains: Vroom's expectancy theory The expectancy theory places an emphasis on the process and on the content of motivation as well, and it integrates needs, equity and reinforcement theories. Victor Vroom's 1964 expectancy theory aims to explain how people choose from the available actions.

Vroom defines motivation as a process that governs our choices among alternative forms of voluntary behaviour. The basic rationale of this theory is that motivation stems from the belief that decisions will have their desired outcomes.

  1. Key Takeaway Need-based theories describe motivated behavior as individual efforts to meet needs. In contrast, motivators are factors that are intrinsic to the job, such as achievement, recognition, interesting work, increased responsibilities, advancement, and growth opportunities.
  2. Furthermore, primary data research such as questionnaires or interviews would not have been sufficiently representative for the intended purpose. Vroom's expectancy theory Source.
  3. For example, one person may perceive a certain situation as inequitable while another does not.

The motivation to engage in an activity is determined by appraising three factors. These three factors are the following Figure 4: If you work harder, it will result in better performance. In this case the question is: If you perform well, you will get reward. In this case the question is that: If one day I get a good grade and another day I get a bad grade for the same performance, then the motivation will decrease.

Vroom supposes that expectancy, instrumentality and valence are multiplied together to determine motivation.

Describe the differences between the theories of Taylor and Maslow.?

This means that if any of these is zero, then the motivation to do something will be zero as well. Vroom's expectancy theory Source: For example if I think: The expectancy theory highlights individual differences in motivation and contains three useful factors for understanding and increasing motivation. Adams' equity theory The equity theory states that people are motivated if they are treated equitably, and receive what they consider fair for their effort and costs.

The theory was suggested by Adams 1965 and is based on Social Exchange theory. According to this theory, people compare their contribution to work, costs of their actions and the benefits that will result to the contribution and benefits of the reference person. If people perceive that the ratio of their inputs-outputs to the ratio of referent other's input-output is inequitable, then they will be motivated to reduce the inequity Figure 5. Adams' equity theory Source: Author's own figure At the workplace the workers put inputs into the job, such as education, experience, effort, energy, and expect to get some outcomes such as salary, reward, promotion, verbal recognition, and interesting and challenging work each in equal amounts Figure 6.

Examples for the inputs and outcomes in the equity theory Source: Author's own figure The equity theory works not just in the workplace, but at school as well. For example, when for the same oral exam performance two students get different marks, then inequity exists. At the school it can demotivate students if someone who never studies or who never performs better than the others always gets good mark.

The greater the inequity the greater the distress an individual feels, which will motivate the endeavour to make the outcomes and the inputs equal compared to the reference person.

Differences Between Maslow and Herzberg Theory of Motivation;

The problem with equity theory is that it does not take into account differences in individual needs, values, and personalities. For example, one person may perceive a certain situation as inequitable while another does not. Nevertheless ensuring equity is essential to motivation. Locke's goal-setting theory Locke's 1990 goal setting theory is an integrative model of motivation just like the expectancy theory. It emphasizes that setting specific, challenging performance goals and the commitment to these goals are key determinants of motivation.

Goals describe a desired future, and these established goals can drive the behaviour. Achieving the goals, the goal accomplishment further motivates individuals to perform. We can distinguish goals according to specificity, difficulty and acceptance. The acceptance of the goal is very important as well, therefore involvement in the goal setting is recommended.

For example, if I decide to pass a medium level language exam in German in six months — this goal is specific and difficult enough — because I want to work in Germany — this goal is very important for me, therefore the goal commitment is high — then I will be motivated to learn, and to pass the exam. The following guidelines have been useful in the goal-setting Figure 7: These can focus toward what you want, and can measure the progress toward the goal.

Strategies to achieve this could include participation in the goal setting process, use of extrinsic rewards bonusesand encouraging intrinsic motivation through providing workers with feedback about goal attainment. Pressure to achieve goals is not useful because it can result in dishonesty and superficial performance. For example, encouragement, needed materials, resources, and moral support.

Comparison of Maslow and Herzberg Theory of Motivation

Goal-setting is a useful theory which can be applied in several fields, from sport to a wide range of work settings. Sports psychology in particular has adopted its recommendations.

The concept of goal-setting has been incorporated into a number of incentive programmes and management by objectives MBO techniques in a number of work areas. Since goal-setting is a relatively simple motivational strategy, it has become increasingly popular. Process of motivation according to goal-setting theory Source: